Journals

2016

Visualizing Waypoints-Constrained Origin-Destination Patterns for Massive Transportation Data

Wei Zeng, Chi-Wing Fu, Müller Stefan Arisona, Alexander L. Erath, Huamin Qu,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Assessing Essential Qualities of Urban Space with Emotional and Visual Data Based on GIS Technique

Xin Li, Ihab Hijazi, Reinhard König, Zhihan Lv, Zhong ,Chen Gerhard Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Energy Scenario Modelling in Developing Countries: A Collaborative Computer-based Tool Using Tangible Interfaces

Eva-Maria Friedrich, Matthias Berger, Müller Stefan Arisona,

Developing countries face different challenges for future electrical energy planning than developed countries. In particular, rural areas suffer from lack of energy supply, which is due to missing transmission infrastructure, influence of foreign players, and capitalization of energy production resources through export. In this paper, we highlight this situation by the case of Ethiopia, one of the least developed countries worldwide. So far, Ethiopia’s energy strategy is mainly based on hydropower, with major projects under construction. However, these projects are unlikely to support rural areas, and in addition have already sparked international controversy due to the substantial ecological impact. In order to obtain a better understanding of which alternative pathways may be feasible, we offer a new planning methodology based on an interactive and collaborative computer-based tool. The tool allows the exploration of different scenarios that include alternative energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaics. Our tool addresses the gap between current policy debates that will shape the development path of the country and existing energy modeling tools. Most existing tools are sophisticated but seem less adequate for developing countries in terms of scope and basic assumptions. By addressing these shortcomings, we present a tool that takes the specific properties of emerging energy markets into account and allows exploring the impact of various policy decisions in a collaborative way without assuming the presence of perfect markets or ubiquitous infrastructure. The tool does not require expert knowledge and can be made available easily to decision-makers, stakeholders, and the public as we demonstrated at the Addis2050 conference in Addis Ababa in 2012.

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2016

Geostatistical Analysis for the Study of Relationships between the Emotional Responses of Urban Walkers to Urban Spaces

Ihab H. Hijazi, Reinhard Koenig, Sven Schneider, Xin Li, Martin Bielik, Gerhard N.J. Schmitt, Dirk Donath,

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2016

Meso-scale modeling of residential and business locations

Daniel Zuend, Robert Woodbury, Gerhard Schmitt,

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2016

Managing Urban Resilience: Stream Processing Platform for Responsive Cities

Bernhard Klein, Reinhard Koenig, Gerhard N. Schmitt,

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2016

Lightweight urban computation interchange (LUCI): a system to couple heterogeneous simulations and views

Lukas Treyer, Bernhard Klein, Reinhard König, Christine Meixner,

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2016

Measuring the homogeneity of urban fabric using 2D geometry data

Ihab H. Hijazi, Xin Li, Reinhard Koenig, Gerhard Schmitt, El Rani Meouche, Zhihan Lv, Mohammed Abune’meh,

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2016

Cooler Calmer Singapore: Towards Comfortable Tropical Urban Environments

Matthias Berger, Peter Buš, Verina Cristie, Ashwani Kumar, Jonas Lauener,

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2016

Computational Urban Planning: Using the Value Lab as Control Center

Reinhard König, Bernhard Klein,

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2015

Urban Design Synthesis for Building Layouts based on Evolutionary Many-Criteria Optimization

Reinhard König,

When working on urban planning projects there are usually multiple aspects to consider. Often these aspects are contradictory and it is not possible to choose one over the other; instead, they each need to be fulfilled as well as possible. In this situation ideal solutions are not always found because they are either not sought or the problems are regarded as being too complex for human capabilities. To improve this situation we propose complementing traditional design approaches with a design synthesis process based on evolutionary many-criteria optimization methods that can fulfill formalizable design requirements. In addition we show how self-organizing maps can be used to visualize many-dimensional solution spaces in an easily analyzable and comprehensible form. The system is presented using an urban planning scenario for the placement of building volumes.

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2015

Civic Engagement and Big Data Informed Urban Design in Future Cities

Gerhard Schmitt,

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2014

Visualizing Mobility of Public Transportation System

Wei Zeng, Chi-Wing Fu, Müller Stefan Arisona, Alexander Erath, Huamin Qu,

Public transportation systems (PTSs) play an important role in modern cities, providing shared/massive transportation services that are essential for the general public. However, due to their increasing complexity, designing effective methods to visualize and explore PTS is highly challenging. Most existing techniques employ network visualization methods and focus on showing the network topology across stops while ignoring various mobility-related factors such as riding time, transfer time, waiting time, and round-the-clock patterns. This work aims to visualize and explore passenger mobility in a PTS with a family of analytical tasks based on inputs from transportation researchers. After exploring different design alternatives, we come up with an integrated solution with three visualization modules: isochrone map view for geographical information, isotime flow map view for effective temporal information comparison and manipulation, and OD-pair journey view for detailed visual analysis of mobility factors along routes between specific origin-destination pairs. The isotime flow map linearizes a flow map into a parallel isoline representation, maximizing the visualization of mobility information along the horizontal time axis while presenting clear and smooth pathways from origin to destinations. Moreover, we devise several interactive visual query methods for users to easily explore the dynamics of PTS mobility over space and time. Lastly, we also construct a PTS mobility model from millions of real passenger trajectories, and evaluate our visualization techniques with assorted case studies with the transportation researchers.

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2014

Inferring building functions from a probabilistic model using public transportation data

Chen Zhong, Xianfeng Huang, Müller Stefan Arisona, Gerhard Schmitt, Michael Batty,

Cities are complex systems. They contain different functional areas originally defined by planning and then reshaped by actual needs and use by the inhabitants. Estimating the functions of urban space is of significant importance for detecting urban problems, evaluating planning strategies, and supporting policy making. In light of the potential of data mining and spatial analysis techniques for urban analysis, this paper proposes a method to infer urban functions at the building level using transportation data obtained from surveys and smart card systems. Specifically, we establish a two-step framework making use of the spatial relationships between trips, stops, and buildings. Firstly, information about the travel purposes for daily activities is deduced using passengers’ mobility patterns based on a probabilistic Bayesian model. Secondly, building functions are inferred by linking daily activities to the buildings surrounding the stops based on spatial statistics. We demonstrate the proposed method using large-scale public transportation data from two areas of Singapore. Our method is applied to identify building functions at building level. The result is verified with master plan, street view, and investigated data, and limitations are identified. Our work shows that the presented method is applicable in practice with a good accuracy. In a broader context, it shows the effectiveness of applying integrated techniques to combine multi-source data in order to make insights about social activities and complex urban space.

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2014

Urban sensing: Using smartphones for transportation mode classification

Dongyoun Shin, Daniel G. Aliaga, Bige Tuncer, Müller Stefan Arisona, Sungah Kim, Dani Zünd, Gerhard Schmitt,

We present a prototype mobile phone application that implements a novel transportation mode detection algorithm. The application is designed to run in the background, and continuously collects data from built-in acceleration and network location sensors. The collected data is analyzed automatically and partitioned into activity segments. A key finding of our work is that walking activity can be robustly detected in the data stream, which, in turn, acts as a separator for partitioning the data stream into other activity segments. Each vehicle activity segment is then sub-classified according to the vehicle type. Our approach yields high accuracy despite the low sampling interval and does not require GPS data. As a result, device power consumption is effectively minimized. This is a very crucial point for large-scale real-world deployment. As part of an experiment, the application has been used by 495 samples, and our prototype provides 82% accuracy in transportation mode classification for an experiment performed in Zurich, Switzerland. Incorporating location type information with this activity classification technology has the potential to impact many phenomena driven by human mobility and to enhance awareness of behavior, urban planning, and agent-based modeling.

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2014

VSV-GP

Reinhard Tober, Zoltan Banki, Lisa Egerer, Alexander Muik, Sandra Behmüller, Florian Kreppel, Ute Greczmiel, Annette Oxenius, von Dorothee Laer, Janine Kimpel,

Antivector immunity limits the response to homologous boosting for viral vector vaccines. Here, we describe a new, potent vaccine vector based on replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with the glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (VSV-GP), which we previously showed to be safe in mice. In mice, VSV and VSV-GP encoding ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen (VSV-OVA and VSV-GP-OVA) induced equal levels of OVA-specific humoral and cellular immune responses upon a single immunization. However, boosting with the same vector was possible only for VSV-GP-OVA as neutralizing antibodies to VSV limited the immunogenicity of the VSV-OVA boost. OVA-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses induced by VSV-GP-OVA were at least as potent as those induced by an adenoviral state-of-the-art vaccine vector and completely protected mice in a Listeria monocytogenes challenge model. VSV-GP is so far the only replication-competent vaccine vector that does not lose efficacy upon repeated application.

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2014

VSV-GP

Reinhard Tober, Zoltan Banki, Lisa Egerer, Alexander Muik, Sandra Behmuller, Florian Kreppel, Ute Greczmiel, Annette Oxenius, von Dorothee Laer, Janine Kimpel,

Antivector immunity limits the response to homologous boosting for viral vector vaccines. Here, we describe a new, potent vaccine vector based on replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with the glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (VSV-GP), which we previously showed to be safe in mice. In mice, VSV and VSV-GP encoding ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen (VSV-OVA and VSV-GP-OVA) induced equal levels of OVA-specific humoral and cellular immune responses upon a single immunization. However, boosting with the same vector was possible only for VSV-GP-OVA as neutralizing antibodies to VSV limited the immunogenicity of the VSV-OVA boost. OVA-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses induced by VSV-GP-OVA were at least as potent as those induced by an adenoviral state-of-the-art vaccine vector and completely protected mice in a Listeria monocytogenes challenge model. VSV-GP is so far the only replication-competent vaccine vector that does not lose efficacy upon repeated application.

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2014

Comparing two evolutionary algorithm based methods for layout generation

Reinhard König, Katja Knecht,

We present and compare two evolutionary algorithm based methods for rectangular architectural layout generation: dense packing and subdivision algorithms.We analyze the characteristics of the two methods on the basis of three floor plan sce- narios. Our analyses include the speed with which solutions are generated, the reliability with which optimal solutions can be found, and the number of different solutions that can be found overall. In a following step, we discuss the methods with respect to their different user interaction capabilities. In addition, we show that each method has the capability to generate more complex L-shaped layouts. Finally,we conclude that neither of the methods is superior but that each of them is suitable for use in distinct application scenarios because of its different properties.

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2014

Augmenting science through art

Matthias Berger,

Augmenting science through art is a call for accepting and empowering art as voice for communicating scientific results. Naturally, science achieves credibility rather by use of terminology, unemotional intersubjectivity and talks limited to introverted circles than by entertaining. Art-science residencies are now an opportunity to fulfill the mandate of opening up towards the society.

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2014

The Unsustainable City

Matthias Berger,

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2013

Classifying watermelon ripeness by analysing acoustic signals using mobile devices

Wei Zeng, Xianfeng Huang, Müller Stefan Arisona, Ian Vince McLoughlin,

This work addresses the problem of distinguishing between ripe and unripe watermelons using mobile devices. Through analysing ripeness-related features extracted by thumping watermelons, collecting acoustic signals by microphones on mobile devices, our method can automatically identify the ripeness of watermelons. This is possible in real time, making use of machine learning techniques to provide good accuracy. We firstly collect a training dataset comprising acoustic signals generated by thumping both ripe and unripe watermelons. Audio signal analysis on this helps identify features related to watermelon ripeness. These features are then used to construct a classification model for future signals. Based on this, we developed a crowdsourcing application for Android which allows users to identify watermelon ripeness in real time while submitting their results to us allowing continuous improvement of the classification model. Experimental results show that our method is currently able to correctly classify ripe and unripe watermelons with an overall accuracy exceeding 89 %.

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2013

Architectural Projections

Lukas Treyer, Müller Stefan Arisona, Gerhard Schmitt,

In the recent years, using buildings and building façades as projection surfaces has become a widespread practice of the live visuals community. However, while projections on a building are typically called ‘architectural,’ they often ignore the interaction of the projection with the architecture and use the building surface merely as a projection screen. In this paper, we reflect on the potential of using projections within the architectural context, and we will discuss early or famous architectural projections as a starting point. Among architectural education aspects, the urban and so- ciological impacts of projections are examined as well as the use of knowl- edge about computer animation and simulation for architectural design. The relation of a positive perception of architecture and ephemeral activi- ties like festivals is implicitly being shown with many examples. The paper is complemented with a case study, a large-scale architectural projection at a city festival, realized by architecture students. Based on the study, we provide insights in the technical setup and show how the architectural education aspects can be included in practical work.

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2013

Visualizing Interchange Patterns in Massive Movement Data

Wei Zeng, Chi-Wing Fu, Stefan Müller Arisona, Huamin Qu,

Massive amount of movement data, such as daily trips made by millions of passengers in a city, are widely available nowadays. They are a highly valuable means not only for unveiling human mobility patterns, but also for assisting transportation planning, in particular for metropolises around the world. In this paper, we focus on a novel aspect of visualizing and analyzing massive movement data, i.e., the interchange pattern, aiming at revealing passenger redistribution in a traffic network. We first formulate a new model of circos figure, namely the interchange circos diagram, to present interchange patterns at a junction node in a bundled fashion, and optimize the color assignments to respect the connections within and between junction nodes. Based on this, we develop a family of visual analysis techniques to help users interactively study interchange patterns in a spatiotemporal manner: 1) multi-spatial scales: from network junctions such as train stations to people flow across and between larger spatial areas; and 2) temporal changes of patterns from different times of the day. Our techniques have been applied to real movement data consisting of hundred thousands of trips, and we present also two case studies on how transportation experts worked with our interface.

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2013

Increasing detail of 3D models through combined photogrammetric and procedural modelling

Müller Stefan Arisona, Chen Zhong, Xianfeng Huang, Rongjun Qin,

This study addresses the need of making reality-based 3D urban models more detailed. Our method combines the established workflows from photogrammetry and procedural modelling in order to exploit distinct advantages of both approaches. Our overall workflow uses photogrammetry for measuring geo-referenced satellite imagery to create 3D building models and textured roof geometry. The results are then used to create attributed building footprints, which can be applied in the procedural modelling part of the workflow. Thereby procedural building models and detailed façade structures, based on street-level photos, are created. The final step merges the textured roof geometry with the procedural façade geometry, resulting in an improved model compared with using each technique alone. The article details the individual workflow steps and exemplifies the approach by means of a concrete case study carried out in Singapore’s Punggol area, where we modelled a newly developed part of Singapore, consisting mainly of 3D high-rise towers.

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2013

Spatial modeling issues in future smart cities

Gerhard Schmitt,

It is our goal to make today’s and future cities smart, sustainable and resilient. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to understand how each city works, to formalize the knowledge gained and to apply it to a city model as the base for simulations that can generate future scenarios with a high level of probability. The nature of this model, which must cover design, qualitative and quantitative aspects, has changed over time. In this study, we focus on the role of the spatial dimension and of geometry in a city model. Emerging from being a dominating generative force in ancient cities, spatial modeling has developed into an underlying description language for present and future cities to define functions and properties of the city in space and time. The example of the stocks and flows model applied to the city depicts where and how spatial modeling influences the design, construction and performance of the future Smart City.

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2012

Agent based evaluation of dynamic city model, a combination of human decision processes and an emission model for transportation based on acceleration and instantaneous speed

Gideon D.P.A. Aschwanden, Tobias Wullschleger, Hanspeter Müller, Gerhard Schmitt,

This project presents a simulation tool to evaluate procedurally generated 3D city models with a set of agents representing pedestrians, the environment and urban street actors towards greenhouse gas emission from transportation. This empiric tool for architects and urban planners analyses, predicts and quantifies traffic fluctuations over time, and define the number of pedestrians, individual traffic and public transport in each area and street of a city. Examples show that the allocation of functions within a city contributes to the appearance of traffic congestion and therefore emissions. This tool simulates the decisions and returns information about the path occupants take and their individual experiences such as stress, effort and deviations. This allows planners to evaluate their design before implementation in an empirical way.

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2012

Integrated Energy Monitoring and Visualization System for Smart Green City Development

Sung Ah Kim, Dongyoun Shin, Yoon Choe, Thomas Seibert, Steffen P. Walz,

U-Eco City is a research and development project initiated by the Korean government. The project's objective is the monitoring and visualization of aggregated and real time states of various energy usages represented by location-based sensor data accrued from city to building scale. The platform's middleware will retrieve geospatial data from a GIS database and sensor data from the individual sensory installed over the city and provide the browser-based client with the accommodated information suitable to display geo-location characteristics specific to the respective energy usage. The client will be capable of processing and displaying real time and aggregated data in different dimensions such as time, location, level of detail, mode of visualization, etc. The platform's middleware has been developed into an operative, advanced prototype, providing information to a Web-based client that integrates and interfaces with the Google Earth and Google Maps plug-ins for geospatially referenced energy usage visualization and monitoring.

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2012

Zusammenarbeit in der Hochschule

Gerhard Schmitt, Antje Kunze,

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2011

Empiric design evaluation in urban planning

Gideon D.P.A. Aschwanden, Simon Haegler, Frédéric N. Bosché, Van Luc Gool, Gerhard Schmitt,

We propose a system to simulate, analyze and visualize occupant behavior in urban environments by combining parametric modeling and agent-based simulation. A procedurally generated 3D city model, with semantic information about the functions and behaviors of buildings, is automatically populated with artificial agents (i.e. pedestrians, cars, and public transport vehicles). In a simulation the built environment and the agents interact with each other. The system identifies empiric correlations between properties such as: functions of buildings and other urban elements, population density, utilization and capacity of the public transport network, and congestion effect on the street network. Practical applications include the assessment of a) bottlenecks, b) public transit efficiency, c) accessibility of amenities, d) quality of service of public transport and the traffic network, as well as e) the stress level and exhaustion of pedestrians. All these aspects ultimately relate to the quality of life within the given urban areas.

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2010

Grammar-based Encoding of Facades

Simon Haegler, Peter Wonka, Stefan Mueller Arisona, Van Luc Gool, Pascal Mueller,

In this paper we propose a real-time rendering approach for procedural cities. Our first contribution is a new lightweight grammar representation that compactly encodes facade structures and allows fast per-pixel access. We call this grammar F-shade. Our second contribution is a prototype rendering system that renders an urban model from the compact representation directly on the GPU. Our suggested approach explores an interesting connection from procedural modeling to real-time rendering. Evaluating procedural descriptions at render time uses less memory than the generation of intermediate geometry. This enables us to render large urban models directly from GPU memory.

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2007

Visual representations in knowledge management

Martin J. Eppler, Remo A. Burkhard,

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to explore the potential of visualization for corporate knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach – The employed methodology consists of a taxonomy of visualization formats that are embedded in a conceptual framework to guide the application of visualization in knowledge management according to the type of knowledge that is visualized, the knowledge management objective, the target group, and the application situation. This conceptual framework is illustrated through real-life examples. Findings – The findings show that there is much room for knowledge management applications based on visualization beyond the mere referencing of experts or documents through knowledge maps. Research limitations/implications – The research implications thus consist of experimenting actively with new forms of visual knowledge representation and evaluating their benefits or potential drawbacks rigorously. Practical implications – The authors encourage managers to look beyond simple diagrammatic representations of knowledge and explore alternative visual languages, such as visual metaphors or graphic narratives. Originality/value – This paper consists of two elements: first, the systematic, descriptive and prescriptive approach towards visualization in knowledge management, and second the innovative examples of how to harness the power of visualization in knowledge management.

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2007

Visualization Summit 2007

Remo Aslak Burkhard, Gennady Andrienko, Natalia Andrienko, Jason Dykes, Alexander Koutamanis, Wolfgang Kienreich, Robert Phaal, Alan Blackwell, Martin Eppler, Jeffrey Huang, Mark Meagher, Armin Grün, Silke Lang, Daniel Perrin, Wibke Weber, Vande Andrew Moere, Bruce Herr, Katy Börner, Jean-Daniel Fekete, Dominique Brodbeck,

At the first international Visualization Summit, more than 100 international researchers and practitioners defined and assessed nine original and important research goals in the context of Visualization Science, and proposed methods for achieving these goals by 2010. The synthesis of the whole event is presented in the 10th research goal. This article contributes a building block for systemizing visualization research by proposing mutually elaborated research goals with defined milestones. Such a consensus on where to go together is only one step toward establishing visualization science in the long-term perspective as a discipline with comparable relevance to chemistry, mathematics, language, or history. First, this article introduces the conference setting. Second, it describes the research goals and findings from the nine workshops. Third, a survey among 62 participants about the originality and importance of each research goal is presented and discussed. Finally, the article presents a synthesis of the nine research goals in the form of a 10th research goal, namely 'Visualizing Future Cities'. The article is relevant for visualization researchers, trend scouts, research programme directors who define the topics that get funds.

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