Publications

2017

Managing Urban Resilience: Stream Processing Platform for Responsive Cities

Bernhard Klein, Reinhard Koenig, Gerhard N. Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2017

Sensing and Mining Urban Qualities in Smart Cities

Danielle Griego, Varin Buff, Eric Hayoz, Izabela Moise, Evangelos Pournaras,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2017

Game Engines for Urban Exploration: Bridging Science Narrative for Broader Participants

Verina Cristie, Matthias Berger,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Visualizing Waypoints-Constrained Origin-Destination Patterns for Massive Transportation Data

Wei Zeng, Chi-Wing Fu, Müller Stefan Arisona, Alexander L. Erath, Huamin Qu,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Assessing Essential Qualities of Urban Space with Emotional and Visual Data Based on GIS Technique

Xin Li, Ihab Hijazi, Reinhard König, Zhihan Lv, Zhong ,Chen Gerhard Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Energy Scenario Modelling in Developing Countries: A Collaborative Computer-based Tool Using Tangible Interfaces

Eva-Maria Friedrich, Matthias Berger, Müller Stefan Arisona,

Developing countries face different challenges for future electrical energy planning than developed countries. In particular, rural areas suffer from lack of energy supply, which is due to missing transmission infrastructure, influence of foreign players, and capitalization of energy production resources through export. In this paper, we highlight this situation by the case of Ethiopia, one of the least developed countries worldwide. So far, Ethiopia’s energy strategy is mainly based on hydropower, with major projects under construction. However, these projects are unlikely to support rural areas, and in addition have already sparked international controversy due to the substantial ecological impact. In order to obtain a better understanding of which alternative pathways may be feasible, we offer a new planning methodology based on an interactive and collaborative computer-based tool. The tool allows the exploration of different scenarios that include alternative energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaics. Our tool addresses the gap between current policy debates that will shape the development path of the country and existing energy modeling tools. Most existing tools are sophisticated but seem less adequate for developing countries in terms of scope and basic assumptions. By addressing these shortcomings, we present a tool that takes the specific properties of emerging energy markets into account and allows exploring the impact of various policy decisions in a collaborative way without assuming the presence of perfect markets or ubiquitous infrastructure. The tool does not require expert knowledge and can be made available easily to decision-makers, stakeholders, and the public as we demonstrated at the Addis2050 conference in Addis Ababa in 2012.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Lightweight urban computation interchange (LUCI): a system to couple heterogeneous simulations and views

Lukas Treyer, Bernhard Klein, Reinhard König, Christine Meixner,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Tokyo Pop Lab: At The Crossroads of Ideas in Tokyo Pop Lab Honorable Mention: Layers Boxes in a 3D Visualization of Pop Culture

Sabrina Santos,

The article presents the architectural design proposal of Tokyo Pop Culture Laboratory in Tokyo.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Geostatistical Analysis for the Study of Relationships between the Emotional Responses of Urban Walkers to Urban Spaces

Ihab H. Hijazi, Reinhard Koenig, Sven Schneider, Xin Li, Martin Bielik, Gerhard N.J. Schmitt, Dirk Donath,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Meso-scale modeling of residential and business locations

Daniel Zuend, Robert Woodbury, Gerhard Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Climate-sensitive Urban Adaptation: Analysis of Qualitative and Quantitative Data of Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Barranquilla, Colombia

Tapias Estefania Pedraza,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Backcasting and a New Way of Command in Computational Design

Reinhard König, Gerhard Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Visions for Complexity

Gerhard Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Managing the Scalability of Visual Exploration using Game Engines to Analyse UHI Scenarios

Bernhard Klein,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Teaching Programming and Urban Complexity to Architecture Students

Lukas Treyer, Daniel Zünd,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Concept of Interactive Machine Learning in Urban Design Problems

Artem Chirkin, Reinhard König,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Visual Analytics for Urban Public Transport

Wei Zeng, Müller Stefan Arisona,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

A Meso-Scale Framework to Support Urban Planning

Daniel Zünd,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Digital Urban Simulation Course: Video Tutorials

Peter Buš,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Computational Urban Planning: Using the Value Lab as Control Center

Reinhard König, Bernhard Klein,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Mapping Planned and Emerging Art Places in Singapore through Social Media Feeds

Ludovica Tomarchio, Bige Tuncer, Linlin You, Bernhard Klein,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Tokyo Pop Lab

P. Buš, T. Vlasák, V. Petrus, P. Bouřil,

The design proposal of Tokyo Pop Lab | At The Crossroads of Ideas was submitted for the Bee Breeders international architecture vision competition Tokyo Pop Lab. The task was to design a building of pop culture laboratory in Tokyo, an institution that will teach students history of popular culture and prepare them for its future evolution. The competition entry was awarded with honorable mention.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Cooler Calmer Singapore: Towards Comfortable Tropical Urban Environments

Matthias Berger, Peter Buš, Verina Cristie, Ashwani Kumar, Jonas Lauener,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Measuring the homogeneity of urban fabric using 2D geometry data

Ihab H. Hijazi, Xin Li, Reinhard Koenig, Gerhard Schmitt, El Rani Meouche, Zhihan Lv, Mohammed Abune’meh,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Cognitive Computing for Urban Design

Reinhard Koenig, Gerhard Schmitt, Matthias Standfest, Artem Chirkin, Bernhard Klein,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2016

Digital Urban Simulation: Documentation of the teaching results from the fall semester 2015

Reinhard König, Estefania Tapias, Gerhard Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

Urban Design Synthesis for Building Layouts based on Evolutionary Many-Criteria Optimization

Reinhard König,

When working on urban planning projects there are usually multiple aspects to consider. Often these aspects are contradictory and it is not possible to choose one over the other; instead, they each need to be fulfilled as well as possible. In this situation ideal solutions are not always found because they are either not sought or the problems are regarded as being too complex for human capabilities. To improve this situation we propose complementing traditional design approaches with a design synthesis process based on evolutionary many-criteria optimization methods that can fulfill formalizable design requirements. In addition we show how self-organizing maps can be used to visualize many-dimensional solution spaces in an easily analyzable and comprehensible form. The system is presented using an urban planning scenario for the placement of building volumes.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

Civic Engagement and Big Data Informed Urban Design in Future Cities

Gerhard Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

Information Architecture

Reinhard König, Evelyn Steiner,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

New Methods in Urban Analysis and Simulation: Documentation of the Teaching Results, Spring Semester 2015

Reinhard König, Estefania Tapias, Gerhard N. Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

Digital Urban Simulation : documentation of the teaching results from the fall semester 2014

Reinhard König, Estefania Tapias, Gerhard N. Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

CAD integrated workflow with urban simulation-design loop process

Matthias Berger, Bus Peter, Verina Cristie, Ashwani Kumar,

The urban space nowadays is considered as an aggregate of large amount of complex characteristics. Information collected by means of urban big data approaches play a crucial role in how to understand, interpret and model urban environments. Simulation models are the best solution for architects, urban planners and designers to integrate various information about urban complexity into the design process. The connection between several simulation approaches within one user interface is still a big challenge to make the design process faster, more accurate and visually convenient. The interface would be involved in the modelling process, pre-processing, simulation, post-processing and visualisation. A CAD integrated user interface is proposed where all these particular components are embedded into one system. The whole process would be based on a workflow loop whereby each component will be depending on the previous cycle. As a case-study of such a principle we establish an extendable modelling and simulation platform connected to a user through the game-engine Unity3D in order to achieve a robust interactive environment. The model platform operates with real urban conditions of an existing part of the city of Singapore and simulates the distribution of traffic’s heat within the investigated environment. Based on the simulation results the user can configure more proper spatial scenarios within the urban plan in different variations. The proposed system would help architects and urban planners to enhance their decision repertoire during the design phase and allows them taking into account more complex information about the urban entirety. The result of the research is therefore a computational decision-making tool with enhanced visual output.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

CityHeat: Interactive Visualisation System of Simulated Urban Traffic Heat Propagation

Verina Cristie, Matthias Berger, Peter, Buš, Ashwani Kumar, Bernhard Klein,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

Visual Analytics for Massive Urban Public Transport Data

Wei Zeng,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

CPlan: An Open Source Library for Computational Analysis and Synthesis

Reinhard Koenig,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

Lightweight urban computation interchange (LUCI) system

Lukas Treyer, Bernhard Klein, Reinhard König, Christine Meixner,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

Lightweight Crowdsourcing

Dongyoun Shin,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

First results of the data acquisition and analysis of microclimate conditions in Barranquilla, Colombia

Estefania Tapias, Andreas Matzarakis, Gerhard Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

Spatial Optimisations: Merging depthmapX, spatial graph networks and evolutionary design in Grasshopper

Reinhard König, Tasos Varoudis,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

3D change detection in an urban environment with multi-temporal data

Rongjun Qin,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

Interview on Information Architecture

Reinhard Koenig, Evelyn Steiner,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2015

CFD Post-processing in Unity3D

Matthias Berger, Verina Cristie,

In architecture and urban design, urban climate on is a strong design criterion for outdoor thermal comfort and building's energy performance. Evaluating the effect of buildings on the local climate and vice versa is done by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The results from CFD are typically visualized through post-processing software closely related to pre-processing and simulation software. The built-in functions are made for engineers and thus, it lacks user-friendliness for real-time exploration of results for architects. To bridge the gap between architect and engineer we propose visualizations based on game engine technology. This paper demonstrates the implementation of CFD to Unity3D conversion and weather data visualization.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Visualizing Mobility of Public Transportation System

Wei Zeng, Chi-Wing Fu, Müller Stefan Arisona, Alexander Erath, Huamin Qu,

Public transportation systems (PTSs) play an important role in modern cities, providing shared/massive transportation services that are essential for the general public. However, due to their increasing complexity, designing effective methods to visualize and explore PTS is highly challenging. Most existing techniques employ network visualization methods and focus on showing the network topology across stops while ignoring various mobility-related factors such as riding time, transfer time, waiting time, and round-the-clock patterns. This work aims to visualize and explore passenger mobility in a PTS with a family of analytical tasks based on inputs from transportation researchers. After exploring different design alternatives, we come up with an integrated solution with three visualization modules: isochrone map view for geographical information, isotime flow map view for effective temporal information comparison and manipulation, and OD-pair journey view for detailed visual analysis of mobility factors along routes between specific origin-destination pairs. The isotime flow map linearizes a flow map into a parallel isoline representation, maximizing the visualization of mobility information along the horizontal time axis while presenting clear and smooth pathways from origin to destinations. Moreover, we devise several interactive visual query methods for users to easily explore the dynamics of PTS mobility over space and time. Lastly, we also construct a PTS mobility model from millions of real passenger trajectories, and evaluate our visualization techniques with assorted case studies with the transportation researchers.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Inferring building functions from a probabilistic model using public transportation data

Chen Zhong, Xianfeng Huang, Müller Stefan Arisona, Gerhard Schmitt, Michael Batty,

Cities are complex systems. They contain different functional areas originally defined by planning and then reshaped by actual needs and use by the inhabitants. Estimating the functions of urban space is of significant importance for detecting urban problems, evaluating planning strategies, and supporting policy making. In light of the potential of data mining and spatial analysis techniques for urban analysis, this paper proposes a method to infer urban functions at the building level using transportation data obtained from surveys and smart card systems. Specifically, we establish a two-step framework making use of the spatial relationships between trips, stops, and buildings. Firstly, information about the travel purposes for daily activities is deduced using passengers’ mobility patterns based on a probabilistic Bayesian model. Secondly, building functions are inferred by linking daily activities to the buildings surrounding the stops based on spatial statistics. We demonstrate the proposed method using large-scale public transportation data from two areas of Singapore. Our method is applied to identify building functions at building level. The result is verified with master plan, street view, and investigated data, and limitations are identified. Our work shows that the presented method is applicable in practice with a good accuracy. In a broader context, it shows the effectiveness of applying integrated techniques to combine multi-source data in order to make insights about social activities and complex urban space.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Urban sensing: Using smartphones for transportation mode classification

Dongyoun Shin, Daniel G. Aliaga, Bige Tuncer, Müller Stefan Arisona, Sungah Kim, Dani Zünd, Gerhard Schmitt,

We present a prototype mobile phone application that implements a novel transportation mode detection algorithm. The application is designed to run in the background, and continuously collects data from built-in acceleration and network location sensors. The collected data is analyzed automatically and partitioned into activity segments. A key finding of our work is that walking activity can be robustly detected in the data stream, which, in turn, acts as a separator for partitioning the data stream into other activity segments. Each vehicle activity segment is then sub-classified according to the vehicle type. Our approach yields high accuracy despite the low sampling interval and does not require GPS data. As a result, device power consumption is effectively minimized. This is a very crucial point for large-scale real-world deployment. As part of an experiment, the application has been used by 495 samples, and our prototype provides 82% accuracy in transportation mode classification for an experiment performed in Zurich, Switzerland. Incorporating location type information with this activity classification technology has the potential to impact many phenomena driven by human mobility and to enhance awareness of behavior, urban planning, and agent-based modeling.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Die Strategie der ETH Zürich für das Singapore-ETH Centre

Gerhard Schmitt,

Die Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich wurde 1855 gegründet und war von Beginn an eine international ausgerichtete Hochschule. Ein Großteil der Professorenschaft und der Studierenden stammte aus Deutschland, Nordeuropa, Russland, und den Ländern der KuK Monarchie. Zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts erreichte diese Entwicklung ihren Höhepunkt.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

VSV-GP

Reinhard Tober, Zoltan Banki, Lisa Egerer, Alexander Muik, Sandra Behmuller, Florian Kreppel, Ute Greczmiel, Annette Oxenius, von Dorothee Laer, Janine Kimpel,

Antivector immunity limits the response to homologous boosting for viral vector vaccines. Here, we describe a new, potent vaccine vector based on replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with the glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (VSV-GP), which we previously showed to be safe in mice. In mice, VSV and VSV-GP encoding ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen (VSV-OVA and VSV-GP-OVA) induced equal levels of OVA-specific humoral and cellular immune responses upon a single immunization. However, boosting with the same vector was possible only for VSV-GP-OVA as neutralizing antibodies to VSV limited the immunogenicity of the VSV-OVA boost. OVA-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses induced by VSV-GP-OVA were at least as potent as those induced by an adenoviral state-of-the-art vaccine vector and completely protected mice in a Listeria monocytogenes challenge model. VSV-GP is so far the only replication-competent vaccine vector that does not lose efficacy upon repeated application.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

VSV-GP

Reinhard Tober, Zoltan Banki, Lisa Egerer, Alexander Muik, Sandra Behmüller, Florian Kreppel, Ute Greczmiel, Annette Oxenius, von Dorothee Laer, Janine Kimpel,

Antivector immunity limits the response to homologous boosting for viral vector vaccines. Here, we describe a new, potent vaccine vector based on replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with the glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (VSV-GP), which we previously showed to be safe in mice. In mice, VSV and VSV-GP encoding ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen (VSV-OVA and VSV-GP-OVA) induced equal levels of OVA-specific humoral and cellular immune responses upon a single immunization. However, boosting with the same vector was possible only for VSV-GP-OVA as neutralizing antibodies to VSV limited the immunogenicity of the VSV-OVA boost. OVA-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses induced by VSV-GP-OVA were at least as potent as those induced by an adenoviral state-of-the-art vaccine vector and completely protected mice in a Listeria monocytogenes challenge model. VSV-GP is so far the only replication-competent vaccine vector that does not lose efficacy upon repeated application.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Evolutionary multi-criteria optimization for building layout planning: Exemplary application based on the PSSA framework

Reinhard Koenig, Matthias Standfest,

When working on urban planning projects there are usually multiple aspects to consider. Often these aspects are contradictory and it is not possible to choose one over the other; instead, they each need to be fulfilled as well as possible. Planners typically draw on past experience when subjectively prioritising which aspects to consider with which degree of importance for their planning concepts. This practice, although understandable, places power and authority in the hands of people who have varying degrees of expertise, which means that the best possible solution is not always found, because it is either not sought or the problem is regarded as being too complex for human capabilities. To improve this situation, the project presented here shows the potential of multi-criteria optimisation algorithms using the example of a new housing layout for an urban block. In addition it is shown, how Self-Organizing- Maps can be used to visualise multi-dimensional solution spaces in an easy analysable and comprehensible form.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Augmenting science through art

Matthias Berger,

Augmenting science through art is a call for accepting and empowering art as voice for communicating scientific results. Naturally, science achieves credibility rather by use of terminology, unemotional intersubjectivity and talks limited to introverted circles than by entertaining. Art-science residencies are now an opportunity to fulfill the mandate of opening up towards the society.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Using geostatistical analysis to detect similarities in emotional responses of urban walkers to urban space

Reinhard Koenig, Sven Schneider, Ihab Hamizi, Martin Bielik, Gerhard Schmitt, Dirk Donath,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Unsupervised Symmetric Polygon Mesh Mapping. The Dualism of Mesh Representation and Its Implementation for Many Layered Self-Organizing Map Architectures.

Matthias Standfest,

With this paper we present a fully automated semantic shape similarity detection based on N-rings with further potential for shape synthesis in a topological correct feature space. Therefore a way of symmetric encoding of geometry, optimized for the use as feature-vector in self-organizing maps, is introduced. Furthermore we present a modified kernel for the detection of the best matching unit in self-organizing maps especially designed for a data topology differing from the default predecessor/successor structure. Finally we provide the results of a conducted experiment clustering building blocks of an area in Zürich, Switzerland.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Building-up urban open spaces from shadow range analyses

Estefania Tapias, Shubham Soni,

This paper explores an alternative approach for the creation of new built forms based on solar access analysis. Consolidated on urban areas under development, the denominated 'inverted' approach is focused on the generation of recreational open spaces based on shadow conditions caused by existing built forms, and as a starting point for the construction of new urban envelopes as possible development areas. Unlike the existing method of the 'solar envelope', the 'inverted' approach shows an alternative procedure for the construction of built forms, based on pedestrian comfort caused by solar access in urban spaces rather than on indoor performance affected by the penetration of sunlight into buildings. As a method for the creation of urban envelopes, this approach attempts to enhance pedestrian comfort according to the study of solar access in urban areas. The 'inverted' approach is based on sun path data and is developed as a generative procedure, where the results of shadow range analyses and the different urban objectives work as input parameters for the generation of urban envelopes. Based on this methodology, two Grasshopper® custom components are developed.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Urban Transformation Towards Polycentricity

Chen Zhong,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Climate-sensitive urban growth

Estefania Tapias, Gerhard Schmitt,

Urban climate conditions affect how cities will develop in the future, not only because of the impact on the environment or on the energy consumption of buildings, but also on outdoor human comfort. The configuration of buildings is one of the main factors that influence the different microclimates in the city. Understanding and especially being able to predict and manipulate these urban microclimates may help improve different aspects of urban life including the outdoor thermal comfort. Because of this, it is possible to use indices of outdoor thermal conform to understand when and how the configurations of building affect the microclimate conditions. This paper describes a method that; (i) enables the integration of microclimate data into the creation of new urban forms using outdoor thermal comfort as an indicator, and (ii) translates this knowledge into a parameterized design-feedback tool. In this way, it will be possible to support the design process by automated tools that explore design spaces of urban forms according to measurements and empirical findings on the relationship between microclimate data and the building geometries.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Comparing two evolutionary algorithm based methods for layout generation

Reinhard König, Katja Knecht,

We present and compare two evolutionary algorithm based methods for rectangular architectural layout generation: dense packing and subdivision algorithms.We analyze the characteristics of the two methods on the basis of three floor plan sce- narios. Our analyses include the speed with which solutions are generated, the reliability with which optimal solutions can be found, and the number of different solutions that can be found overall. In a following step, we discuss the methods with respect to their different user interaction capabilities. In addition, we show that each method has the capability to generate more complex L-shaped layouts. Finally,we conclude that neither of the methods is superior but that each of them is suitable for use in distinct application scenarios because of its different properties.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

The Unsustainable City

Matthias Berger,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

A Visual Analytics Framework for Large Transportation Datasets

Chen Zhong, Stefan Müller Arisona, Gerhard Schmitt,

The advancement of sensor technologies makes it possible to collect large amounts of dynamic urban data. On the other hand, how to store, process, and analyze collected urban data to make them useful becomes a new challenge. To address this issue, this paper proposes a visual analytics framework, which is applied to transportation data to manage and extract information for urban studies. More specifically, the proposed framework has three components: (1) a geographic information system (GIS) based pipeline providing basic data processing functions; (2) a spatial network analysis that is integrated into the pipeline for extracting spatial structure of urban movement; (3) interactive operations allowing the user to explore and view the output data sets at different levels of details. Taking Singapore as a case study area, we use a sample data set from the automatic smart card fare collection system as an input to our prototype tool. The result shows the feasibility of proposed framework and analysis method. To summarize, our work shows the potential of geospatial based visual analytics tools in using "big" data for urban analysis.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Enabling geo-design

I.H. Hijazi, M. Haj Hussein, Reinhard König,

This paper reports a study that has been undertaken as part of an on-going project to examine the capacity of 3D city models to support thermal design of building. The two standard used for this is CityGML and gbXML. The first is an OGC standard for the exchange of 3D city information, and the second is a CAD standard to exchange of information between engineering and environmental analysis software. In particular, our premise is that effective thermal design relies on the ability to exchange urban environment information such as surrounding building, green areas, streets, trees. CityGML is a 3D information model that provides a detailed information about the topography and manmade objects - surrounding environment data in a robust way using an open information standard GML. The focus of this present work has been on the processes involved in design with the urban context and how it could affect the design workflow for advising on thermal performance issues. We begin by looking at the kinds of data that needs to be exchanged to support such design in context. We then test the exchange using a pilot project model and finally review the capacity of the CityGML standard to support such processes.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2014

Planen im Konjunktiv

Gerhard Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2013

Classifying watermelon ripeness by analysing acoustic signals using mobile devices

Wei Zeng, Xianfeng Huang, Müller Stefan Arisona, Ian Vince McLoughlin,

This work addresses the problem of distinguishing between ripe and unripe watermelons using mobile devices. Through analysing ripeness-related features extracted by thumping watermelons, collecting acoustic signals by microphones on mobile devices, our method can automatically identify the ripeness of watermelons. This is possible in real time, making use of machine learning techniques to provide good accuracy. We firstly collect a training dataset comprising acoustic signals generated by thumping both ripe and unripe watermelons. Audio signal analysis on this helps identify features related to watermelon ripeness. These features are then used to construct a classification model for future signals. Based on this, we developed a crowdsourcing application for Android which allows users to identify watermelon ripeness in real time while submitting their results to us allowing continuous improvement of the classification model. Experimental results show that our method is currently able to correctly classify ripe and unripe watermelons with an overall accuracy exceeding 89 %.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2013

Best Practices for Urban Densification

Tapias Estefania Pedraza, Antje Kunze, Giuseppe Roccasalva, Gerhard Schmitt,

This paper presents an approach for microclimate aware densification of urban areas by creating best practices for an in situ application for block-size urban developments. The discussed procedure generates and evaluates urban block types according to microclimate criteria by integrating climate and comfort parameters in the design process of existing urban areas. It supports urban designers by generating design strategies that aim for climate, comfort and spatial as well as for urban design qualities. To achieve this, a multi-step method with different analysis and research processes has been set up. At the end, a parametric envelope tool was created for a local case study area by incorporating pre-defined design strategies built on previous investigations as urban design strategies. It is expected that this envelope tool can be transferred to similar urban development activities and guide microclimatic versus densification trade-offs. The presented approach can be applied from street canyon to block size urban situations.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2013

The City Biosphere

Sofia Georgakopoulou, Daniel Zünd, Gerhard Schmitt,

This paper introduces a new experimental city generation, assembly and development platform, the urban mutations platform. We describe in detail a methodology for modeling urban systems and their dynamics, based on self-organization principles. The urban area is seen as an organism comprised of different “body parts”, the urban subunits. Upon creation of an initial 3D urban environment, it is possible to add to the subunits the so-called mutations, i.e. structural and functional components that can have beneficial or detrimental effects to the future city development. After addition of the mutations we allow the city to reorganize itself and observe possible changes in the urban configuration. These changes can be directly correlated to the added mutations and their urban qualities and allow us to probe the effect that different structural and functional elements have on the dynamic behaviour of the city, when placed at specific locations.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2013

Visualizing urban analysis in mixed reality

Lukas Treyer, Anastasia Koltsova, Sofia Georgakopoulou,

This paper focuses on the computational creation of animated data visualization used to communicate urban analysis and design in a video. The goal is to combine abstract analysis information with concrete qualitative impressions of a location in the case study area of Zurich. Different urban analysis methods are used to procedurally create an animation with the open source software Blender that facilitates also the compositing process of animation with video. The resulting videos are created during an elective course at ETH Zurich. Anticipating the advent of augmented and mixed reality applications for daily life, we elaborate on their usability for urban design, education and collaborative planning with relatively easy to learn video effect methods. Not only different levels of abstraction are visualized but also -- inherent to the medium of video -- the relation to time.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2013

Visibility Analysis for 3D Urban Environments

Anastasia Koltsova, Tuncer Bige, Gerhard Schmitt,

This paper presents a visibility analysis tool for 3D urban environments and its possible applications for urban design practice. Literature exists for performing visibility analysis using various methods and techniques, however, tools that result from such research are generally not suitable for use by designers in practice. Our visibility analysis tool resides in Grasshopper, Rhino. It uses a ray casting method to analyze the visibility of façade surfaces from a given vantage point, and of a given urban setting, in particular, buildings and roads. The latter analysis provides information on the best visible buildings/building facades from segments of roads. We established a collaboration with a practicing architect to work on a design competition together, using this tool. The paper elaborates on the visibility analysis methods, presents the tool in detail, discusses the results of our joint work on the competition, and briefly reflects on the evaluation of the use of the tool by design practitioners.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2013

Identifying Spatial Structure of Urban Functional Centers Using Travel Survey Data

Chen Zhong, Xianfeng Huang, Müller Stefan Arisona, Gerhard Schmitt,

Identifying the spatial structure generated by urban movements contributes to a better understanding of urban dynamics and is crucial to urban planning applications. Despite a number of studies concerning functional urban space, related research is still in a development phase, especially using emerging urban movement data. This study proposes a centrality index and attractiveness indices for detecting the urban spatial structure of functional centers and their spatial impacts using transportation data. The basic idea of these indices is to build a relationship between the activity patterns (distribution, density, and diversity) and urban form. Accordingly, measurements, spatial analysis, and clustering methods are presented. Taking Singapore as a case study area, we applied the proposed indices and measurements to travel survey data of different years, through which centers of urban activities as well as the changing urban form are detected and compared quantitatively. Our approach yields important insights into urban phenomena generated by human movements. It represents a novel way of quantitative urban analysis and explicit urban change identification.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2013

Crowdsourcing Urban Sensing: Mobile phone for urban data collection

Dongyoun Shin, Sofia Georagakopoulou, Daniel Zünd, Gerhard Schmitt,

We proposed the method that a crowdsourcing-sensing environment could bring human mobility pattern into the urban simulation platform. We implemented a mobile application “Citying” which can collect sensing data and analyse the data by returning with user-friendly info-visualization. The analysis contains divers environmental aspects: travel distance, transportation type, and location type where is home, working, and leisure place. In order to applying this technology into the urban research domain, we focused on the method how this individual sensing information could be extended to the urban scale model.

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2013

Graphical Smalltalk with My Optimization System for Urban Planning Tasks

Reinhard Koenig, Lukas Treyer, Gerhard N. Schmitt,

Based on the description of a conceptual framework for the representation of planning problems on various scales, we introduce an evolutionary design optimization system. This system is exemplified by means of the generation of street networks with locally defined properties for centrality. We show three different scenarios for planning requirements and evaluate the resulting structures with respect to the requirements of our framework. Finally the potentials and challenges of the presented approach are discussed in detail.

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2013

Increasing detail of 3D models through combined photogrammetric and procedural modelling

Müller Stefan Arisona, Chen Zhong, Xianfeng Huang, Rongjun Qin,

This study addresses the need of making reality-based 3D urban models more detailed. Our method combines the established workflows from photogrammetry and procedural modelling in order to exploit distinct advantages of both approaches. Our overall workflow uses photogrammetry for measuring geo-referenced satellite imagery to create 3D building models and textured roof geometry. The results are then used to create attributed building footprints, which can be applied in the procedural modelling part of the workflow. Thereby procedural building models and detailed façade structures, based on street-level photos, are created. The final step merges the textured roof geometry with the procedural façade geometry, resulting in an improved model compared with using each technique alone. The article details the individual workflow steps and exemplifies the approach by means of a concrete case study carried out in Singapore’s Punggol area, where we modelled a newly developed part of Singapore, consisting mainly of 3D high-rise towers.

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2013

Spatial modeling issues in future smart cities

Gerhard Schmitt,

It is our goal to make today’s and future cities smart, sustainable and resilient. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to understand how each city works, to formalize the knowledge gained and to apply it to a city model as the base for simulations that can generate future scenarios with a high level of probability. The nature of this model, which must cover design, qualitative and quantitative aspects, has changed over time. In this study, we focus on the role of the spatial dimension and of geometry in a city model. Emerging from being a dominating generative force in ancient cities, spatial modeling has developed into an underlying description language for present and future cities to define functions and properties of the city in space and time. The example of the stocks and flows model applied to the city depicts where and how spatial modeling influences the design, construction and performance of the future Smart City.

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2013

Enhancing Photogrammetric 3D City Models with Procedural Modeling Techniques for Urban Planning Support

Simon Schubiger-Banz, Müller Stefan Arisona, Chen Zhong,

This paper presents a workflow to increase the level of detail of reality-based 3D urban models. It combines the established workflows from photogrammetry and procedural modeling in order to exploit distinct advantages of both approaches. The combination has advantages over purely automatic acquisition in terms of visual quality, accuracy and model semantics. Compared to manual modeling, procedural techniques can be much more time effective while maintaining the qualitative properties of the modeled environment. In addition, our method includes processes for procedurally adding additional features such as road and rail networks. The resulting models meet the increasing needs in urban environments for planning, inventory, and analysis.

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2013

Reclaiming backlanes - addressing energy efficiency, outdoor comfort and urban space

Marcel Bruelisauer, Sonja Berthold, Gideon Aschwanden, Iris Belle, Edda Ostertag, Forrest Meggers,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2013

Visualizing Interchange Patterns in Massive Movement Data

Wei Zeng, Chi-Wing Fu, Stefan Müller Arisona, Huamin Qu,

Massive amount of movement data, such as daily trips made by millions of passengers in a city, are widely available nowadays. They are a highly valuable means not only for unveiling human mobility patterns, but also for assisting transportation planning, in particular for metropolises around the world. In this paper, we focus on a novel aspect of visualizing and analyzing massive movement data, i.e., the interchange pattern, aiming at revealing passenger redistribution in a traffic network. We first formulate a new model of circos figure, namely the interchange circos diagram, to present interchange patterns at a junction node in a bundled fashion, and optimize the color assignments to respect the connections within and between junction nodes. Based on this, we develop a family of visual analysis techniques to help users interactively study interchange patterns in a spatiotemporal manner: 1) multi-spatial scales: from network junctions such as train stations to people flow across and between larger spatial areas; and 2) temporal changes of patterns from different times of the day. Our techniques have been applied to real movement data consisting of hundred thousands of trips, and we present also two case studies on how transportation experts worked with our interface.

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2013

Spatial Economics on Urban Scale

Daniel Zünd, Sofia Georgakopoulou, Gerhard Schmitt,

Following the core models of geographic economics, we model economic dynamics within urban areas. It is important to evaluate the models for their feasibility, so that they can evolve to a tool for decision makers and urban planners.

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2013

Architectural Projections

Lukas Treyer, Müller Stefan Arisona, Gerhard Schmitt,

In the recent years, using buildings and building façades as projection surfaces has become a widespread practice of the live visuals community. However, while projections on a building are typically called ‘architectural,’ they often ignore the interaction of the projection with the architecture and use the building surface merely as a projection screen. In this paper, we reflect on the potential of using projections within the architectural context, and we will discuss early or famous architectural projections as a starting point. Among architectural education aspects, the urban and so- ciological impacts of projections are examined as well as the use of knowl- edge about computer animation and simulation for architectural design. The relation of a positive perception of architecture and ephemeral activi- ties like festivals is implicitly being shown with many examples. The paper is complemented with a case study, a large-scale architectural projection at a city festival, realized by architecture students. Based on the study, we provide insights in the technical setup and show how the architectural education aspects can be included in practical work.

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2012

SUPat – Sustainable Urban Patterns, Second Progress Report NRP 65

Gerhard Schmitt, Wissen Ulrike Hayek, Antje Kunze, Adrienne Grêt-Regamey, Thomas F. Rutherford, Michel Bierlaire, Roland W. Scholz, Angelus Eisinger, Franz Eberhard, Piet Eckert, Markus Schaefer, Matthias Müller, Silva Ross, von Timo Wirth, Jan Halatsch, Noemi Neuenschwander, Anastasia Koltsova, Stefan Kurath, Bilal Farooq, Ricardo Hurtubia, van Renger Nieuwkoop,

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2012

Agent based evaluation of dynamic city model, a combination of human decision processes and an emission model for transportation based on acceleration and instantaneous speed

Gideon D.P.A. Aschwanden, Tobias Wullschleger, Hanspeter Müller, Gerhard Schmitt,

This project presents a simulation tool to evaluate procedurally generated 3D city models with a set of agents representing pedestrians, the environment and urban street actors towards greenhouse gas emission from transportation. This empiric tool for architects and urban planners analyses, predicts and quantifies traffic fluctuations over time, and define the number of pedestrians, individual traffic and public transport in each area and street of a city. Examples show that the allocation of functions within a city contributes to the appearance of traffic congestion and therefore emissions. This tool simulates the decisions and returns information about the path occupants take and their individual experiences such as stress, effort and deviations. This allows planners to evaluate their design before implementation in an empirical way.

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2012

Integrated Energy Monitoring and Visualization System for Smart Green City Development

Sung Ah Kim, Dongyoun Shin, Yoon Choe, Thomas Seibert, Steffen P. Walz,

U-Eco City is a research and development project initiated by the Korean government. The project's objective is the monitoring and visualization of aggregated and real time states of various energy usages represented by location-based sensor data accrued from city to building scale. The platform's middleware will retrieve geospatial data from a GIS database and sensor data from the individual sensory installed over the city and provide the browser-based client with the accommodated information suitable to display geo-location characteristics specific to the respective energy usage. The client will be capable of processing and displaying real time and aggregated data in different dimensions such as time, location, level of detail, mode of visualization, etc. The platform's middleware has been developed into an operative, advanced prototype, providing information to a Web-based client that integrates and interfaces with the Google Earth and Google Maps plug-ins for geospatially referenced energy usage visualization and monitoring.

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2012

Parametric building typologies for San Francisco Bay Area

Antje Kunze, Julia Dyllong, Jan Halatsch, Paul Waddell, Gerhard Schmitt,

This research paper concentrates on a conceptual framework for the creation of high-level procedural city models. A workflow is presented, which enables users to create city models in an intuitive way by using design-code-driven building typologies. This drastically advances traditional procedural city modelling where usually low-level implementations of city model components take place. New planning methods and instruments have to be developed for the growing demand of the rapid environmental, social and economic changes in cities and agglomerations. The presented method allows for quick visualization and iteration by using urban planning typologies.

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2012

Urban heat-balling

Matthias Berger,

Cities accumulate people in a way Earth has not seen before. The implications for climate change on the global scale have already been evaluated, as shown by UN Habitat reports. The local climate phenomenon of the urban heat island (UHI) is well known. Unfortunately cities in tropical and subtropical climate suffer twice: the additional heat requires more expenses on cooling, and cooling is less efficient due to the higher ambient temperature. We call this problem ‘urban heat-balling’, similar to the group behavior of honeybees facing larger intruding insects. The bees, like human in cities with UHI, assemble into a ball and surround their enemy, resulting in overheating and heat-transfer problem for the encircled. In order to avoid UHI in cities where it poses a threat, the authors suggest focusing more on thermal aspects of sustainable development. The spatial analysis of the distribution of anthropogenic heat sources follows two procedures. Top-down, the approach is based on the Sankey diagram of energy flows, which enables tracing the quantitative contribution of heat release. A priority list of possible reduction based on the kind of energy conversion and consumption is generated, which gives an estimate of a city’s energy balance before and after a change. Bottom-up, the individual heat of human activity per square meter versus the aggregation of human activity, e.g. through densified living and working conditions, is studied in order to prevent heat-balling at small and medium scales. Finally, a new guide for landuse and urban planning is suggested. The solutions clearly depend on the prevailing climatic conditions of the cities. As for Singapore, minimizing urban heat release first and producing renewable energy (solar PV, wind) in better suited areas are necessary for fighting UHI.

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2012

Parametric Tools for Conceptual Design Support at the Pedestrian Urban Scale

Anastasia Koltsova, Bige Tuncer, Sofia Georgakopoulou, Gerhard Schmitt,

This paper presents an inverse pedestrian urban design method and an initial set of parametric tools for conceptual design support at the pedestrian urban scale. Inverse pedestrian urban design concerns the derivation of urban design parameters from a local context in order to produce better informed and situated designs. The tools concern the rationalization of street network and building form. Some of the parameters that are used within the tools are view angles (visibility analysis) and distances between target points (accessibility analysis). The paper elaborates on inverse urban design, presents some case studies and tools, and touches upon design patterns and their alignment to design processes.

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2012

Agent-Based Social Pedestrian Simulation for the Validation of Urban Planning Recommendations

Gideon D.P. Aschwanden,

The goal of this project is a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that shape a city with a focus on pedestrian flow. Pedestrian flow reveals the use of space, the capacity and use of transportation and has an impact on the health of people. Movement patterns of pedestrians are a topic in many related fields like transportation planning, computer graphics and sociology. This project augments the simulation of pedestrian decision processes by taking into account the preferences for surrounding factors like additional points of interests and how pedestrians interact along their path with other pedestrians in a social manner. The goal of this project is to analyse urban planning configurations and to give designers and decision makers a tool to measure the amount of people walking and therefore define the health of a society, finding places of social interaction and improving social coherence in neighbourhoods.

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2012

Collaborative Urban Platform: A transdisciplinary setup and implementation

Wissen Ulrike Hayek, von Timo Wirth, Noemi Neuenschwander, Angelus Eisinger, Stefan Kurath, Antje Kunze, Jan Halatsch, Michael Stauffacher, Adrienne Grêt-Regamey, Gerhard Schmitt,

Siedlungsqualität langfristig sicherzustellen ist aufgrund ihrer vielfältigen Facetten und der Komplexität der Siedlungsrealität eine grosse Herausforderung. Neue Ansätze müssen entwickelt werden, die es ermöglichen, sektor- und massstabsübergreifend, iterativ und mit enger Zusammenarbeit von Wissenschaft und Praxis, robuste Siedlungsmuster zu entwickeln. Ziel des Projektes ist deshalb die Erarbeitung einer kollaborativen Plattform mit Modellierungs- und Visualisierungsinstrumenten für transdisziplinäre Planungsprozesse nachhaltiger Siedlungsmuster.<br/><br/>Securing urban quality in the long-term is a challenging task due to its manifold facets and the complexity of urban reality. New approaches have to be developed that enable the development of robust urban patterns across disciplines and scale, iteratively and in close collaboration of science and practice. The project goal is therefore the development of a collaborative platform comprising modelling and visualization tools for transdisciplinary planning processes of sustainable urban patterns.

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2012

Path Creation

Matthias Berger,

‘Path creation’ is, in contrast to ‘path dependency’ theory, the idea of actively creating the present, rather than being dependent on a struck path. This paper investigates path creation for the future energy production of Singapore. Nowadays, the city‐state is meandering, dependent upon the old prerogative of GDP growth, which has indeed led to great economic gains. No goal has been defined by the government for the growth; therefore the sole premise is securing the energy supply for the axiom of growth. By arguing that defining an alternative or qualitative better goal is the citizens’ responsibility, path creation might offer a better tool. The moral imperative of a sustainable future should be implemented by the government in its citizens. By framing the energy future with respect to climate change, Singapore’s footprint and economic rank then becomes a civic duty.

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2012

Zusammenarbeit in der Hochschule

Gerhard Schmitt, Antje Kunze,

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2012

Using a shifted lens to achieve visual depth in facade projections more efficiently

Lukas Treyer, Sofia Georgakopoulou, Gerhard Schmitt,

This paper describes a method for creating spatial illusion projections in a simple yet efficient way. It uses the horizontal and vertical lens shift properties of a virtual camera in a 3D modelling software to produce a normalized image that can be subsequently mapped with a traditional mapping technique, as cornerpin keystone correction for instance, onto a real facade. Our calculations describe how to automatically derive horizontal and vertical shift values. The method was developed during the creation process of a series of projections created with the 3D modelling software “Blender”.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2012

MetroBuzz: Interactive 3D Visualization of Spatiotemporal Data

Wei Zeng, Chen Zhong, Afian Anwar, Müller Stefan Arisona, Ian Vince McLoughlin,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2012

System Design Proposal for an Urban Information Platform

Gideon D.P. Aschwanden, Zhong Chen, Maria Papadopoulou, Didier G. Vernay, Stefan Müller Arisona, Gerhard Schmitt,

This paper focuses on information modelling and proposes a system design for an urban model encompassing multi-scale data. The system employs procedural modelling on top of GIS information to allow different simulation tools to interact with the data. This is a promising approach for an urban information platform integrating multi-scale urban information to support different simulations important in urban design. In an initial instance the information platform is used to scale-up and scale-down in information modelling, linking technologies on different spatial levels, and utilizing the advantages of different tools to evaluate the built environment. The platform is applied in Singapore to manage urban data and support urban formation.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2012

Sustainable Futures: functional use of scenario technique to identify regional system potentials

von Timo Wirth, Wissen Ulrike Hayek, Noemi Neuenschwander, Antje Kunze, Roland W. Scholz,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2012

A look at SUPat PhD projects: Investigating urban quality requires teamwork

Jan Halatsch, Ricardo Hurtubia, Anastasia Koltsova, Antje Kunze, Noemi Neuenschwander, von Timo Wirth,

In this present workshop report the young researchers of NRP 65 “Sustainable Urban Patterns (SUPat)” reflect on their performed individual research works relating to urban qualities and discuss different views on inter- and transdisciplinarity. Further they give an individual overview their specific research approaches and how they actually established and contiued interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary exchanges between the PhDs and in addition to project partners.

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2012

Spatiotemporal Visualisation

Chen Zhong, Tao Wang, Wei Zeng, Müller Stefan Arisona,

Visualisation as a means of communication helps represent massive data sets, exchange knowledge and obtain better understanding of information. Spatiotemporal visualisation concerns changes of information in space and time. It has a natural advantage of revealing overall tendencies and movement patterns. Compared to traditional visual representations, it makes the notion of time accessible to non-expert users, and thus constitutes an important instrument in terms of decision-making that has been used in many application scenarios. As an interdisciplinary approach, substantial progress has been made in different domains, such as geographic information science, visualisation, or visual analytics, but there remains a lot of room for further advancements. In view of this, this paper presents a review of significant research in spatiotemporal visualisation, highlights a general workflow of data acquisition, information modelling and visualisation. Existing work from different domains are introduced, linked to the workflow, and possible integration strategies are given. Inspired by this summary, we also propose future work aiming at improving current spatiotemporal visualisation by integrating visualisation and interaction techniques more tightly.

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2012

Transdisciplinary urban collaboration platform based on GeoDesign for securing urban quality

Wissen Ulrike Hayek, Noemi Neuenschwander, Jan Halatsch, Antje Kunze, Timo von Wirth, Adrienne Grêt-Regamey, Gerhard Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2012

A Crowdsourcing Urban Simulation Platform on Smartphone Technology

Dongyoun Shin, Müller Stefan Arisona, Sofia Georgakopoulou, Gerhard Schmitt, Sungah Kim,

We propose a crowdsourcing simulation environment that brings human intention into the urban simulator. Our fundamental goal is to simulate urban sustainability by employing direct human interaction. In this paper we present a prototype mobile phone application that implements a novel transportation mode detection algorithm. The mobile phone application runs in the background and continuously collects data from the built-in acceleration and network location sensors. The collected data is analyzed by the transportation mode detection algorithm and automatically partitioned into activity segments. A key observation of our work is that walking activity can be robustly detected in the data stream and acts as a separator for partitioning the data stream into other activity segments. Each vehicle activity segment is then sub-classified according to the type of used vehicle. Our approach yields high accuracy despite the low sampling interval and not requiring GPS data that bring minimized device power consumption. Ultimately, the collected information can be translated into real-time urban behavior and will indicate sustainability, both on the personal and the city level.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2012

Urban heat-balling

Matthias Berger, Eva-Maria Friedrich,

The local climate phenomenon of the urban heat island (UHI) is well known. Cities in tropical and subtropical climate suffer twice: additional heat requires more expenses on cooling, which is less efficient due to higher ambient temperature. We call this problem ‘urban heat-balling’, similar to the group behavior of honeybees. In order to avoid UHI in cities where it poses a threat, the authors suggest focusing more on thermal aspects of sustainable development. The spatial analysis of the distribution of anthropogenic heat sources follows two procedures. Top-down, the approach is based on Sankey diagrams of energy flows, which enables tracing the quantitative contribution of heat. Bottom-up, the individual heat of human activity per m2 is studied. Finally, a new guide for land-use and urban planning is suggested. The solutions depend on the prevailing climatic conditions of the cities. Most problematic are atmospheric conditions resulting in low wind speeds on ground level, causing local overheating of buildings. Changing the focus in urban planning from mitigation of the symptoms of UHIs to mitigation of the sources has higher potential of reduction and would provide a sustainable solution to the problem. As for Singapore, minimizing urban heat release first and producing renewable energy in better suited areas are necessary for fighting UHI. Decentralized lossy conversion of energy in cities with UHI should be as far as possible avoided. Either centralize the conversion outside the city, as possible for the transportation sector when switching to electric vehicles, or enforce efficient public transport.

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2012

Design of Urban Space at Pedestrian Scale

Anastasia Koltsova, Antje Kunze, Gerhard Schmitt,

This paper focuses on a method for parameterization of urban space at the pedestrian scale. There is a growing demand for new design approaches that would help to slow down urban sprawls, move away from modernist urban planning models and improve the quality of urban centers overall. One important aspect that contributes to the overall sustainability of contemporary cities is the quality of pedestrian space. To enhance urban environment at pedestrian scale new design strategies must be investigated. Contemporary urban centers must provide various options for public transport, contain fine-grained urban functions, mixed use building types and good-quality public open spaces to facilitate their use by pedestrians. The aim of this paper is a) to identify the initial set of design parameters of urban form at the pedestrian scale and b) to demonstrate the exemplary implementation of these parameters within parametric software, e.g. Grasshopper for Rhinoceros and Esri CityEngine for analysis, optimization and evaluation of urban settings.

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2012

Visualization and Decision Support Tools in Urban Planning

Antje Kunze, Remo Aslak Burkhard, Serge Gebhardt, Bige Tuncer,

Cities are rapidly growing. There is an assumption that 90% of global population growth will be in cities between now and 2030. Therefore, infrastructures and the environment have to be adapted to the changing demands. Moreover, new urban development strategies have to be elaborated. In 2007, the first international Visualization Summit of more than 100 international researchers and practitioners stated a jointly developed research goal for the year 2010, namely ’Visualizing Future Cities’. Therefore in this chapter we provide an overview about visualization methods, decision support tools in architecture, urban and regional planning, stakeholder participation and collaborative environments. Also, new decision support tools for the visualization of future cities will be introduced.

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2012

Value lab: Innovation in teaching visual design

Kateřina Novakova, Lukas Treyer, Gerhard Schmitt, Henri Achten,

In this paper we comment on design teaching and communication in the domain of architectural education, particularly in the initial parts of the design process, where hand sketching is applied. We are aware of advantages that electronic sketch devices incorporate, therefore we investigate their implementation in diverse phases of architectural studio education. We are testing our presumptions on site, running an experimental design studio with students at two universities: ETH Zurich and CVUT Prague. The focus lies in configuration and further use of Value Lab in teaching and in an adequate sketch application development. The tool is called ColLab sketch and its multi-interfacial manner fits large touch-tables as well as small tablets.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2012

Using an Interactive Dymaxion Map to Convey Research Information through Visualization

Chen Zhong, Tao Wang, Stephen Carins, Müller Stefan Arisona,

Visualization is a medium for communicating information to and between people with different background knowledge. The availability of digital tools and the progress of visualization technologies enhance the potential of visual representation. But along with it, issues emerge as how to choose appropriate forms of visualization to make results generally understandable. This paper presents our approach to convey information on research conducted at ETH Zurich's Future Cities Laboratory (FCL) to a broad target audience through visualization. We first carry out a requirements analysis for the visualization task. The results of the analysis are elaborated and implemented by means of a software prototype that employs an interactive Dymaxion Map to visualize the information given in our case.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2012

Blender for Architects 2013

Lukas Treyer, Gerhard Schmitt,

In this paper I will discuss workflows of architects, the strengths and weaknesses of Blender in terms of these architectural workflows and ways to better support an architect in developing and/or visualizing a project. Among a general subjective observation of how architects use their tools and how the tools themselves are evolving at the moment, I will present a few propositions on the one hand how Blender could become more architect/ design-friendly and on the other hand how a few interface concepts of Blender could enrich the development of architecture tools and what the first steps would be for that.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2012

Digital Urban Modeling and Simulation

Müller Stefan Arisona, Gideon Aschwanden, Jan Halatsch, Peter Wonka,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2012

A Planning Environment for the Design of Future Cities

Gerhard Schmitt,

In the global context, the population of cities and urbanized areas has developed from a minority to become the majority. Now cities are the largest, most complex and most dynamic man-made systems. They are vibrant centres of cultural life and engines that drive local and global economies. Yet, contemporary urbanized areas are environmentally, socially and economically unsustainable entities laying increasing pressure on the surrounding rural areas. Traditional methods of planning and managing large cities that lead to this situation have reached their limits. The planning and design processes therefore need a radical re-thinking. On the computational side, this necessitates the integration of new methods and instruments. On the planning and design side, this requires the involvement of stakeholders and decision makers much earlier than normally done in the past. The combination of interactive design and computation will demonstrate the effects and side effects of urban-rural planning or re-development. We build our design research approach on dynamics and scale: viewing cities and settlements as entities with dynamic urban metabolisms, we propose to apply stocks and flows simulations to the building scale (small, S-Scale), to the urban scale (medium, M-Scale), and to the territorial scale (large, L-Scale). Our long-term goal is the sustainable urban-rural system. Planning and implementation examples from Switzerland and ETH Zurich Science City serve as test cases, with the intent to use the findings for developments in other parts of the world.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2011

SUPat – Sustainable Urban Patterns, Progress Report NRP 65

Gerhard Schmitt, Wissen Ulrike Hayek, Antje Kunze, Adrienne Grêt-Regamey, Thomas F. Rutherford, Michel Bierlaire, Roland W. Scholz, Angelus Eisinger, Franz Eberhard, Piet Eckert, Markus Schäfer, Matthias Müller, Silva Ross,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2011

Empiric design evaluation in urban planning

Gideon D.P.A. Aschwanden, Simon Haegler, Frédéric N. Bosché, Van Luc Gool, Gerhard Schmitt,

We propose a system to simulate, analyze and visualize occupant behavior in urban environments by combining parametric modeling and agent-based simulation. A procedurally generated 3D city model, with semantic information about the functions and behaviors of buildings, is automatically populated with artificial agents (i.e. pedestrians, cars, and public transport vehicles). In a simulation the built environment and the agents interact with each other. The system identifies empiric correlations between properties such as: functions of buildings and other urban elements, population density, utilization and capacity of the public transport network, and congestion effect on the street network. Practical applications include the assessment of a) bottlenecks, b) public transit efficiency, c) accessibility of amenities, d) quality of service of public transport and the traffic network, as well as e) the stress level and exhaustion of pedestrians. All these aspects ultimately relate to the quality of life within the given urban areas.

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2011

Urban Visualisation Beyond 3D

Müller Stefan Arisona,

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2011

SUPat - Sustainable Urban Patterns

Wissen Ulrike Hayek, Antje Kunze, Noemi Neuenschwander, Timo von Wirth, Renger van Niewkoop, Ricardo Hurtubia, A. Eisinger, Gerhard Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2011

Accommodating Varying User Roles in Participatory Urban Design

Müller Stefan Arisona, Gideon D.P.A. Aschwanden,

This paper discusses ongoing research in augmenting participatory urban design techniques with computer-assisted methods. We highlight the basic requirements and challenges, many of which are in direct relation to the “user in flux” concept, and present our approaches that revolve around the Value Lab, a digital-augmented space at ETH Zurich. Our discussion shows that while today’s hardware technology is capable of meeting the requirements, software techniques lag behind and require future efforts in order to achieve a holistic user-experience during participatory design workshops.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2011

A Crowdsourcing Urban Simulation Platform Using Mobile Devices and Social Sensing

Dongyoun Shin, Müller Stefan Arisona, Gerhard Schmitt,

Cities are among the most complex entities created by humans. Even though humans are the designers and main users of these entities, we are still trying to understand and transform the urban environment in order to improve our well-being and enjoy a better life. In this context, we suggest the novel idea of simulating this complex world by adopting ‘social sensing’ and ‘crowdsourcing’ concepts which have the potential to initiate a paradigm shift in urban simulation design. Based on the concept of crowdsourcing, we present a human-agent based urban simulation, which directly feeds citizens’ intentions and activities into the simulation in real-time. This work is based on previous research dealing with urban sensing. We integrate previous ideas to our platform that simulates urban sustainability by sensing user activities. The specific research tasks of our simulation environment are: i) sensing inhabitant’s acceleration and location data, ii) transforming the raw data into CO2 emission information, and iii) designing user interaction in order to induce mass participation. To secure the mass participation, we envision the user interaction using diverse social network services and enhancing a user-friendly interface, and adopting a gamification idea implementing entertaining elements.

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2011

Das Planen von Zukunftsstädten und das Streben nach Lebensqualität

Jan Halatsch,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2011

Responsive Illuminated Architecture

Christian Schneider, Müller Stefan Arisona,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2011

A Conceptual Participatory Design Framework for Urban Planning

Antje Kunze, Jan Halatsch, Carlos Vanegas, Maldaner Martina Jacobi, Benamy Turkienicz, Gerhard Schmitt,

This paper focuses on the definition of a conceptual participatory design framework for urban planning. Traditional planning methods can no longer satisfy the growing demands on sustainable urban planning in regard to factors such as complexity, problem size, and level of detail and these limitations make the development of new approaches necessary. Expert knowledge as well as insights from stakeholders and community members needs to take part equally in the decision-making process since they are responsible for a broad understanding and acceptance of final planning decisions. Therefore, a participatory framework is presented in the following, which integrates needs and requirements of stakeholders. In order to enable diverse groups of stakeholders to act conjointly, we propose the application of interactive decision support tools, which will leverage general conclusions especially to solve crucial planning decisions.

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2011

A Case Study of Script-Based Techniques in Urban Planning

Anastasia Koltsova, Gerhard Schmitt, Patrik Schumacher, Tomoyuki Sudo, Shipra Narang, Lin Chen,

This paper introduces the use of parametric design tools in the domain of large-scale urban planning. The 253-hectare site in Moscow, Russia, was selected as the study case of the methodology. Through the exploration of a differentiated urban order functioning within a framework of overall coherence the site is interpreted as an informational data field. In the particular example, a data field represents a set of points distributed on the site. A manipulative set of input parameters is derived from the contextual forces around the site – such as 1950’s socialist housing, the new urban Moscow City and the Moscow river - while output variables incorporate a distance value for each important point on the site to those of the surrounding elements. Using script-based techniques, values are translated into the urban and formal responses of building typology, height, connectivity and directionality. These data-holding elements then cumulatively outline the pattern and grain of the site. The use of multiple transformative building typologies creates an urban tapestry bringing about diversification within the urban field, whereas the negotiation and continual shift between singular and plural building masses becomes the premise of the architectural condition. Hence, the design process focuses on the formal resolution of the multiple juxtaposed patterns that emerge from the site. Diversity within the field is amplified at the component scale where dynamic building sub systems exhibit a spatial flexibility and changing image idea.

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2011

Components for parametric urban design in Grasshopper

Christian Schneider, Anastasia Koltsova, Gerhard Schmitt,

The main contribution of our work is in combining the methods for parametric urban design of highly specialized software such as CityEngine and general-purpose parametric modeling platform such as Grasshopper. Our work facilitates and prompts the use of parametric tools by architects and planners for urban design. In this paper we present a custom grasshopper component for street network generation and block subdivision. The component was developed in C# using the RhinoCommon SDK. We used Grasshopper for the development of an urban design proposal at a teaching exercise. To meet the requirements of the urban design project, additional functionalities had to be added to the range of existing Grasshopper components. In particular, we needed components for street network generation and block subdivision. To develop the component we implemented the street expansion strategies described in (Weber et al., 2009) and the methods for block subdivision described in (Vanegas et al., 2009). Additionally, we adapted and enhanced the strategies to meet the NURBS modeling capabilities of Rhinoceros.

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2010

Energy Monitoring and Visualization System for U-ECO City

Dongyoun Shin, Thomas Seibert, Steffen P. Walz, Yoon Choe, Sung-Ah Kim,

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2010

Procedural Modeling of Urban Green Space Pattern Designs Taking into Account Ecological Parameters

Wissen Ulrike Hayek, Noemi Neuenschwander, Jan Halatsch, Adrienne Grêt-Regamey,

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2010

Grammar-based Encoding of Facades

Simon Haegler, Peter Wonka, Stefan Mueller Arisona, Van Luc Gool, Pascal Mueller,

In this paper we propose a real-time rendering approach for procedural cities. Our first contribution is a new lightweight grammar representation that compactly encodes facade structures and allows fast per-pixel access. We call this grammar F-shade. Our second contribution is a prototype rendering system that renders an urban model from the compact representation directly on the GPU. Our suggested approach explores an interesting connection from procedural modeling to real-time rendering. Evaluating procedural descriptions at render time uses less memory than the generation of intermediate geometry. This enables us to render large urban models directly from GPU memory.

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2010

Agent based Emission Evaluation of Traffic in Dynamic City Models

Gideon Aschwanden, Tobias Wullschleger, Hanspeter Müller, Gerhard Schmitt,

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2010

A Conceptual Framework for the Formulation of Stakeholder Requirements

Antje Kunze, Gerhard Schmitt,

We need to face challenging needs for the planning of sustainable future cities. New methods in urban simulation enhance significantly the early urban design phase. However, these promising methods will only be sustainable if they consider stakeholder participation from the very beginning. Therefore we propose a conceptual framework for the formulation of stakeholder requirements, which enables the iterative modification of an urban model inside participatory workshops. A special emphasis concentrates on environmental, social and economical factors. The requirements posed by the stakeholders are instantly transferred into urban design patterns. Each single pattern stands for a solution for a specific problem that is integrated and visualized in a procedural model. Our goal is to create a participatory process that takes advantages by the use of comprehensive urban design patterns. The results are integrated within an interactive procedural model that communicate the most important guidelines for the planning of sustainable future cities.

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2010

Future Cities

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2010

A grammar-based procedural design guideline visualization diagram for the development of SVA Masdar City

Jan Halatsch, Thomas Caro, Bruno Moser, Gerhard Schmitt,

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2010

Integrating Natural Resource Indicators into Procedural Visualisation for Sustainable Urban Green Space Design

Wissen Ulrike Hayek, Jan Halatsch, Antje Kunze, Gerhard Schmitt, Adrienne Grêt-Regamey,

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2009

The ETH Value Lab and Two Software Tools for Knowledge Creation in Teams

Remo Burkhard, Christian Schneider, Michael Meier,

This article discusses three tools that allow making collaboration and decision-making more effective. It presents insights from working in the ldquoETH Baugarten Value Labrdquo, a new research space with five touch displays. First, the article introduces this lab. Then, it introduces two software tools to support communication and group decision-making. The first tool is targeted at urban planners, the second at managers. We found that (1) the lab fascinates and engages the users, (2) that not many software tools are available for such a setting and that those tools are not very user friendly, (3) that people underestimate the time to design suitable workshops. We have found in various workshops that our two tools seem to go in the right direction, which states that ldquoless functionality is morerdquo.

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2009

The Sensitive Tapestry

Sandra Wipfli, Christian Schneider,

This paper presents ‘The Sensitive Tapestry‘, an interactive installation using body-input as a nontraditional user interface. The technical basis for this kind of media-enabled environment is a thermal imager that captures the activities in public areas at a large scale. The installation has been developed as a prototypical example in architectural education at the ETH Zurich, Science City. The aim of the project is to generate a novel experience, which shows the potential of merging physical architecture and digital information. The article newly develops architecture as an interface that reveals information about the building itself, its occupants, and/or its environment. It describes the research that employs design experimentation and information visualization with the use of computersupported, interactive, visual representations of abstract data to amplify cognition. This questions the way in which one perceives the own body spatiality and motility in physical and augmented environments and how the particular experience created by this juxtaposition evokes one’s awareness of the motility in the public. The paper suggests that introducing this kind of display in a social scenario can enrich the casual interaction of people nearby and this might enhance social awareness and engagement.

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2009

A grammar-based system for the participatory design of urban structures

Martina Jacobi, Jan Halatsch, Antje Kunze, Gerhard Schmitt, Benamy Turkienicz,

We propose a three-step participatory design cycle for the early urban design phase that can be integrated into the digital design chain. Step one involves a visualization method that is implemented as an interactive card-based interview technique for the collaborative requirement specification of urban designs. In step two these specifications are a) translated into simplified GIS data and then b) implemented into a grammar-based system together with the corresponding design regulations. The final outcome is a generative and iterative urban model, which includes buildings, building blocks, transportation networks and open spaces that visually communicates spatial impacts of urban design proposals.

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2009

Evaluation of 3D City Models Using Automatic Placed Urban Agents

Gideon Aschwanden, Simon Haegler, Jan Halatsch, Rafaël Jeker, Gerhard Schmitt, Van Luc Gool,

We present a method for populating procedurally generated 3D city models with crowds of artificial agents. It is targeted towards the analysis, prediction and visualization of occupant behaviour in urban planning. We simulate and quantify correlations on the following aspects: functions of buildings, number of people and fluctuation in density. Potential practical applications are for example a) to determine bottlenecks in public transit, b) to identify possible problems for evacuation scenarios, c) to evaluate the demand for and the accessibility of amenities as well as d) the stress of pedestrians to evaluate quality of life indicator for a given urban region . The occupants’ location data – represented by the agents - and relevant semantic metadata are encoded inside a grammar-based city modelling system. This information is used for the context-dependent automatic placement of occupant locators during the procedural generation process of the urban 3D model. Most of the underlying parameters are interconnected with each other. For example, the number of resulting agents corresponds to the size, function and location of one specific building. Once a 3D city model has been generated, occupants are represented by agents using a) a commercial fuzzy logic system and b) pre-animated 3D avatars. The agents find their way through the city by moving towards points of interest to which they are attracted. Each individual agent draws specific paths while interacting with the urban environments and other agents. Every path describes a set of parameters, for example speed, space available and level of exhaustion. The ensuing visual diagrammatic representation shows the resulting agent paths in correlation with the virtual environment. This offers the opportunity to investigate parts of a city and optimise corresponding aspects with minimal interventions on the urban level. We show the application of this method to evaluate planning interventions in the urban fabric and monitor the correlating effects.

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2009

A Novel Camera-Based System for Collaborative Interaction with Multi-Dimensional Data Models

Michael van Bergh, den Jan Halatsch, Antje Kunze, Frédéric N. Bosché, Van Luc Gool, Gerhard Schmitt,

In this paper, we address the problem of effective visualization of and interaction with multiple and multi-dimensional data supporting communication between project stakeholders in an information cave. More exactly, our goal is to enable multiple users to interact with multiple screens from any location in an information cave. We present here our latest advancements in developing a novel human-computer interaction system that is specifically targeted towards room setups with physically spread sets of screens. Our system consists of a set of video cameras overseeing the room, and of which the signals are processed in real-time to detect and track the participants, their poses and hand-gestures. The system is fed with camera based gesture recognition. Early experiments have been conducted in the Value Lab (see figure 1), that has been recently introduced at ETH Zurich, and they focus on enabling the interaction with large urban 3D models being developed for the design and simulation of future cities. For the moment, experiments consider only the interaction of a single user with multiple layers (points of view) of a large city model displayed on multiple screens. The results demonstrate the huge potential of the system, and the principle of vision based interaction for such environments. The work continues on the extension of the system to a multi-user level.

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2009

A Visually Supported Interactive Risk Assessment Approach for Group Meetings

Remo A. Burkhard, Thomas Merz,

This paper introduces a new process-oriented visualisation method for risk assessment in groups. Today, in corporate risk assessment there is a lack in visual facilitation methods for collaborative assessments of risks. Existing visualisation methods emphasize analytical purposes. However, they are not useful for the facilitation of risk assessments in a group, such as the board of management. The described risk visualization approach offers a visual dialogue oriented approach to improve the quality of organisational risk-assessment in groups and goes hand in hand with already established risk management processes and systems. Secondly, this paper introduces the “ETH Baugarten Value Lab”, where we tested the tool on touch displays.

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2009

Value Lab

Jan Halatsch, Antje Kunze, Gerhard Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2009

The Hellenistic City Model Inspired by Koolhaas

Jan Halatsch, Myrsini Mamoli, Athanassios Economou, Gerhard Schmitt,

In this paper, we suggest a generic city description model suited for purposes like semi-automatic city modeling and urban layout evaluation. The generic city model refers to basic vital functions of a (computable) city. Feature patterns are used to extend the generic city model with global and local characteristics. The Hellenistic cities serve as a platform for a first implementation to test a semi-automatic city model generation. As a result four cities are reconstructed as a first example of our ongoing work, Miletus, Knidos, Priene and Olynthus. Future work will deal with the application of the generic city model to the performance simulation of contemporary urban layouts.

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2008

Crowd Simulation for Urban Planning

Gideon Aschwanden, Jan Halatsch, Gerhard Schmitt,

This paper presents a semi-automatic visualization method for the evaluation of urban environments that is based on artificial intelligence. It proposes the use of agent-based crowd simulation software on a mid-scale urban planning level for design evaluation. The information on agents’ movements is noted in standard raster images. The results are maps that are easy to understand. These maps show movement paths of the agents and density and give further conclusion on bottlenecks in planning contexts. Key measures, like the occupant movement in a given district, until now relied greatly on empirical knowledge or data that could be only gathered after an urban design had become built reality. Our method focuses on the adaptation of common software technology that is originally situated in film and TV productions. A practical workflow shows how our method can be easily integrated in daily design tasks. Keywords: Artificial intelligence; agent-based; crowd simulation; urban planning; design evaluation; occupant movement.

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2008

ETH Value Lab

Jan Halatsch, Antje Kunze, Remo Burkhard, Gerhard Schmitt,

In this paper we discuss how the planning of complex urban systems can be supported by combining (a) dynamic, complimentary visualization software toolkits for planning, project management and visualizing neighborhoods, (b) interactive real-built information architecture, (c) multi-touch, large format display devices and (d) collaboration techniques into a tool for modeling and designing future cities called Value Lab. Finally, we show comprehensive examples from research, application, and teaching.

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2008

Visualising future cities in the ETH Value Lab

Remo Burkhard, Gerhard Schmitt,

This article discusses how the use of complementary visualisation techniques can contribute to improve planning, understanding, and communication of future cities, especially when different stakeholders are involved. First, it describes a framework to structure visual representations. Second, it introduces the ‘ETH Value Lab’ as a tool for designing future cities. Third, it introduces two applications that can be used for two urban planning processes: planning and project management and visualising neighbourhoods. Finally, it shows scenarios for education and learning. This article is relevant for urban planners and visualisation researchers, because it points to the emerging field of visualising future cities and for professors, teachers, but also school administration and ICT-experts who want to invest and use state-of the art mixed reality infrastructures for teaching and research.

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2008

Sustainable master planning using design grammars

Jan Halatsch, Antje Kunze, Gerhard Schmitt,

Successful sustainable urban planning has to deal with existing demands in urban design connected to a highly complex system in every direction of business a planner could think of. Furthermore, reality frequently overtakes ongoing planning. These circumstances are especially severe for the urban planning of mega cities, where sustainability must be in the focus of interest for several reasons. “Green lungs”, as one example supporting sustainability within urban environments enhance the functionality of cities to balance humidity locally, to shade buildings and sites and to enable public recreation as well as to reduce air pollution directly and indirectly. This quantitatively and qualitatively less explored branch of urban design requires complex and time consuming modeling tasks even on a master planning scope. In this paper we describe a novel method to create sustainable urban vegetation designs automatically as a kind of early simulation step, which can be used as a guideline for following master planning tasks of high-density urban environments. We had formalized sustainability criteria available in current planning knowledge into CGA shape grammar, which had been introduced by [1]. Additionally, we extended these urban planning rule sets with defined urban landscape patterns. We use these patterns with a procedurally model rule-based distribution and placement of vegetation as well as landscape objects to generate sustainable urban environments. We also show how to use a shape grammar in combination with procedural methods that iteratively develop an urban design, automatically creating more and more details in order to plan sustainable cities more effectively. We link the use of patterns [2] and the design possibilities of shape grammars to plan sustainable design. As results, we present the simulated master plans of different sustainable urban environments in different climates. This paper evolves out of a recent paper [3] of the authors with a strong similarity in section 1-5. Exception: The contributed work is extended by the use of design grammars suited for sustainable design. The extensions adhere especially to the application of design patterns in the context of sustainable master planning and are focused but not limited to vegetation scenarios.

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2008

The Potential of Crowd Simulations for Communication Purposes in Architecture

Remo Burkhard, Stefan Bischof, Andres Herzog,

This article discusses an early stage of research on the potential of crowd simulation tools for (marketing) communication purposes in architecture and urban planning. We argue that today, in architecture and urban planning, agent-based simulation tools have been primarily used for analytical purposes, such as the simulation of pedestrians or fire escape scenarios in buildings, and only rarely for the creation of videos for communication purposes, for example for marketing purposes. We found that even with the best available software tools the cost-benefit ratio for architects is not yet optimal and that architects might – from an economic point of view – today be more effective if they outsource such a task to an animation specialist.This paper is relevant for architects, urban designers, communication and PR experts and for researchers in the fields of architecture, knowledge visualization, communication science, agent-based simulations.

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2008

Bildungsraum Science City ETH

Remo Aslak Burkhard,

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2008

Using Shape Grammars for Master Planning

Jan Halatsch, Antje Kunze, Gerhard Schmitt,

This paper describes the application of procedural modeling methods to automatically derive 3D models of high visual quality for a highly detailed and quick visualization of complex city models. We discuss the applicability of a procedural modeling pipeline of shape grammars in urban planning to derive meaningful 3D city models. Therefore we analyze CGA shape, a novel shape grammar for the procedural modeling of CG architecture, for its usage in architectural planning processes. Our system gives rise to three exciting applications in the field of city modeling and city visualization enabling a quick decision making and iterative design workflow: modeling of master plans, evaluation of built environments and planning of urban open spaces. It is capable to produce building shells with high visual quality and geometric detail. Context sensitive shape rules allow the user to specify interactions between the entities of the hierarchical shape descriptions. Selected examples demonstrate solutions to previously noted challenges.

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2008

Visualize Desires, not Cities

Remo Burkhard,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2008

Bildungsraum Science City ETH

Remo Aslak Burkhard,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2008

Informationsarchitektur

Remo Aslak Burkhard,

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2007

Procedural Design of Urban Open Spaces

Andreas Ulmer, Jan Halatsch, Antje Kunze, Pascal Müller, Van Luc Gool,

This paper presents a novel approach for the automatic creation of vegetation scenarios in real or virtual 3D cities in order to simplify the complex design process and time consuming modeling tasks in urban landscape planning. We introduce shape grammars as a practical tool for the rule-based generation of urban open spaces. The automatically generated designs can be used for pre-visualization, master planning, guided design variation and digital content creation in general (e.g. for the entertainment industry). In a first step, we extend the CGA shape grammar by Müller et al. (2006) with urban planning operations. In a second step, we employ the possibilities of shape grammars to encode design patterns (Alexander et al., 1977). Therefore, we propose several examples of design patterns allowing for an intuitive high-level placement of objects common in urban open spaces (e.g. plants). Furthermore, arbitrary interactions between distinct instances of the vegetation and the urban environment can be encoded. With the resulting system, the designer can efficiently vegetate landscape and city parks, alleys, gardens, patios and even single buildings by applying the corresponding shape grammar rules. Our results demonstrate the procedural design process on two practical example scenarios, each one covering a different scale and different contexts of planning. The first example illustrates a derivation of the Garden of Versailles and the second example describes the usage of high-level rule sets to generate a suburbia model.

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2007

Course digital art techniques

Pascal Mueller, Arisona Stefan Müller, Kenneth A. Huff, Bernd Lintermann,

Digital art has become a respected art form, and interest in this very interdisciplinary field is rapidly growing as more and more contemporary artists start employing computers for implementing their own creative work. This course focuses on techniques for creating digital visual art; in particular on the case where custom, not off-the-shelf software tools are applied. The attendees of the course learn how distinct techniques are applied in order to achieve specific artistic goals. They will further learn what consequences and requirements result from given artistic ideas in terms of realizing effective digital art software components.

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2007

Visual representations in knowledge management

Martin J. Eppler, Remo A. Burkhard,

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to explore the potential of visualization for corporate knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach – The employed methodology consists of a taxonomy of visualization formats that are embedded in a conceptual framework to guide the application of visualization in knowledge management according to the type of knowledge that is visualized, the knowledge management objective, the target group, and the application situation. This conceptual framework is illustrated through real-life examples. Findings – The findings show that there is much room for knowledge management applications based on visualization beyond the mere referencing of experts or documents through knowledge maps. Research limitations/implications – The research implications thus consist of experimenting actively with new forms of visual knowledge representation and evaluating their benefits or potential drawbacks rigorously. Practical implications – The authors encourage managers to look beyond simple diagrammatic representations of knowledge and explore alternative visual languages, such as visual metaphors or graphic narratives. Originality/value – This paper consists of two elements: first, the systematic, descriptive and prescriptive approach towards visualization in knowledge management, and second the innovative examples of how to harness the power of visualization in knowledge management.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2007

Value Lab

Jan Halatsch, Antje Kunze,

Visualization of huge data sets for activities in business worlds, entertainment industries and extended visualization in sciences are one of the most exciting chances in architecture. They can result in interweaving physical spaces - physical architectures - with electronic data spaces - virtual architectures. Places and localities with distances in geographical, intercultural and economic matters do not need to exist separated any longer. The networking concepts shout for the use of new architectural languages. Architectural interfaces in physical and digital spaces deliver associated communication, collaboration and learning - breaking up distances in time and geographic spaces. Inside this paper we will discuss how information architecture could be set up in existing buildings with the Value Lab as an example and which methods can be used to develop and to design physical architecture. We present the Value Lab as a recent prototype for Information Architecture.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2007

Visualization Summit 2007

Remo A. Burkhard, Gennady Andrienko, Natalia Andrienko, Jason Dykes, Alexander Koutamanis, Wolfgang Kienreich, Robert Phaal, Alan Blackwell, Martin Eppler, Jeffrey Huang, Mark Meagher, Armin Grün, Silke Lang, Daniel Perrin, Wibke Weber, Vande Andrew Moere, Bruce Herr, Katy Börner, Jean-Daniel Fekete, Dominique Brodbeck,

At the first international Visualization Summit, more than 100 international researchers and practitioners defined and assessed nine original and important research goals in the context of Visualization Science, and proposed methods for achieving these goals by 2010. The synthesis of the whole event is presented in the 10th research goal. This article contributes a building block for systemizing visualization research by proposing mutually elaborated research goals with defined milestones. Such a consensus on where to go together is only one step toward establishing visualization science in the long-term perspective as a discipline with comparable relevance to chemistry, mathematics, language, or history. First, this article introduces the conference setting. Second, it describes the research goals and findings from the nine workshops. Third, a survey among 62 participants about the originality and importance of each research goal is presented and discussed. Finally, the article presents a synthesis of the nine research goals in the form of a 10th research goal, namely 'Visualizing Future Cities'. The article is relevant for visualization researchers, trend scouts, research programme directors who define the topics that get funds.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2007

Three conditions for successful campus planning

Gerhard Schmitt,

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view
2007

Visualization Summit 2007

Remo Aslak Burkhard, Gennady Andrienko, Natalia Andrienko, Jason Dykes, Alexander Koutamanis, Wolfgang Kienreich, Robert Phaal, Alan Blackwell, Martin Eppler, Jeffrey Huang, Mark Meagher, Armin Grün, Silke Lang, Daniel Perrin, Wibke Weber, Vande Andrew Moere, Bruce Herr, Katy Börner, Jean-Daniel Fekete, Dominique Brodbeck,

At the first international Visualization Summit, more than 100 international researchers and practitioners defined and assessed nine original and important research goals in the context of Visualization Science, and proposed methods for achieving these goals by 2010. The synthesis of the whole event is presented in the 10th research goal. This article contributes a building block for systemizing visualization research by proposing mutually elaborated research goals with defined milestones. Such a consensus on where to go together is only one step toward establishing visualization science in the long-term perspective as a discipline with comparable relevance to chemistry, mathematics, language, or history. First, this article introduces the conference setting. Second, it describes the research goals and findings from the nine workshops. Third, a survey among 62 participants about the originality and importance of each research goal is presented and discussed. Finally, the article presents a synthesis of the nine research goals in the form of a 10th research goal, namely 'Visualizing Future Cities'. The article is relevant for visualization researchers, trend scouts, research programme directors who define the topics that get funds.

http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view